Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Requirements to be met in drinking water reservoirs

Posted at  10:53 AM - by maihoub ateya 0

Requirements to be met in drinking water reservoirs
Ground water tanks
Site requirements:
To be far away as possible from all sources of pollution so that at least away from (10) meters from any source of pollution sources such as septic tanks and assembly or sanitation groves or manholes.
That the location of the reservoir is low so as not to submerge rainwater laden dust, dirt and lead to contamination of water inside it, as it should be, up from the site groves exchange and allowing to be a direction of surface water from the reservoir to the Bayyara and not vice versa, must be level water storage tank Ground level higher than the sources of pollution, if any, including at least 50 cm.
If the water level high ground Jovi exchange must be done on the ground around the water tank so as to prevent the nomination to the inside of the tank.
Taken into account when creating ground water reservoirs to be adjacent to the extent possible to the entrance and in the case of Wall establish ground reservoirs within the construction of residential buildings shall be as close as possible to the entrance for easy filling or maintenance work is foreign to them.
Insulation requirements
Need to be walls and bottom ground reservoirs Court compact fully to prevent colds and so as not to be susceptible to contamination and that Ptlies bottom and walls of the reservoir from home and abroad Bljash cement with the addition of anti-nominated and required not to be a toxic substance and packaging the bottom and walls of the tank from the outside layers of insulation moisture horizontally and vertically.

Way to protect a textured ground water tank insulation
Account ground water tank capacity:
Must be commensurate Water tank capacity ground with a number of apartments and the beneficiary population and enough population for a period of at least two days and are estimated based on the rate of at least 100 liters / capita / day and not less tank capacity for (10 m3), so note the following:
In small enterprises (housing independent "villa" - a building consisting of two units, residential buildings not exceeding an area of ​​buildings 500 m 2) is recommended to be tank capacity ground 12 m3 with the addition of 3 m3 per dwelling unit or per 150 m 2 of additional spaces of buildings.
For large buildings:

B - feeding tubes are designed on the basis that the speed of the water does not exceed 8 feet / s of the lists of water and 5 ft / s for sub-tubes.
Capacity of the reservoir is estimated on the following basis:
A - enough storage capacity for water supply for 3 days and for the consumption of the population.

Based on that can determine the amount of water needed to fight the fire as follows:
- The amount of water to be stored for a network, if any guns = (500 - 750) gallons / min for a period ranging from 30-60 minutes.
- The required amount of water stored for fire hoses internal and external = 100 gallons / min for 30 minutes.
C - ground tank capacity = the amount of water required for fire (guns + fire hoses) + the required amount of water for public consumption.
Accessories that are mounted on ground water tank
Ground water tank provides the following pipes:
A - pipe feeding the reservoir from the public network and install a float valve.
B - withdrawn pipe water from the reservoir by pumping set to lift the top of the tank and install lock valve.
C - surplus pipe and exchange washing lines with lock valves with a note paint steel pipes adjacent to the textured water against rust and non-toxic.
Ride the ventilation pipe (diameter about 2 inches) with a ceiling reservoir and Pkua to the bottom at the end of the wire mesh to prevent the entry of insects.
Installed in ground water tanks ladders Bhari be resistant materials for steel and non-toxic to facilitate access to and out of the tanks to carry out maintenance work and periodic cleansing
Implementation and testing requirements:

Walls and floors coated with epoxy reservoirs or other materials used to prevent leakage of water.
Placed water and insulation to prevent leakage breakers among all construction joints, as tightly plugged all the plumbing vents and openings used in the implementation.
Establish a slab floor if they are located above the level of ground water by more than one meter on a layer of rubble المدكوك well, and put a layer anti-moisture, but if the slab floor is under attributed the expected water ground or close to it must cover the nave and all the faces of the external tank, including at least two layers of membranes saturated with asphalt.

Are tested insulating layers of Interior in the tank after the end of implementation, before the outer insulation, backfilling and so fill the tank with water for 48 hours, and treat the causes of any leak or nominated prove its existence before starting the outer insulation and filling is then tested the outer insulation after its implementation and after emptying the tank of water completely and left to dry.
Used to backfill around the tank materials of the type of backfill construction (selected) according to standard specifications Arabia and classification of American specifications for roads) or equivalent, and is filling the layers does not exceed the thickness of each 20 cm, and is KD Each layer mechanically until the achievement of the density of not less than 95% of the density Great dry that the measured density way of a test proctor, as amended, and shall oversee the implementation of the process of filling a technical specialist with experience in this business, and must conduct all field tests necessary to make sure backfilling and recording quality results on a regular basis.
Design requirements:
You must consider the technical assets when designing concrete armed slab floor and walls of ground reservoirs and when implemented works sealant water between الصبات different especially among slab floor and walls, vertical and also care Compasses iron vertical walls and horizontal slab floor and walls, vertical even be performed properly and secure under the influence of loads expected reservoir during their working life, such as the horizontal soil pressure, water pressure and any other unexpected loads, taking into account the work of the bond between different Concrete and especially among the bottom and vertical walls.
Are arming the walls and floor reservoirs nets the arm, prove by Aelchenakl and the chairs
Reinforcing bars used with a diameter as small as 10 mm diameter, 12 mm 14 mm in the armed resistance to cracks.
Provide ground reservoirs openings with lids of material cast iron shall comply with the Saudi standard No. (413/1985) and be kind of tight to prevent leakage of water into the tank with the installation of kink protection of material non-rust, corrosion and the need to raise the level of openings and lids on the level of reservoirs to avoid leakage of rain water or wash water into the reservoirs with protection and take precautions to ensure not to tamper with children or falling inside with committing engineering offices and advisory when preparing designs for water tanks ground to be sheeting own in accordance with the plans and designs its stomach and the accompanying Circular
Care must design the tank Roof Tile ground under the influence of the expected loads such as the weight of the soil layers above, as well as any unexpected live loads.
You must choose the path of the pipeline that feeds the reservoir floor of the public network as well as the pipes beyond him away from all potential sources of pollution and take the necessary precautions to isolate these pipes.
That is the work of a small decline in parts of the reservoir measuring at least (50 cm x 50 cm) and depth (25 cm) in the area under the pipe to withdraw water from the reservoir.
To work a little flair to the outside back of the roof of the tank for easy drainage.
Supplying pumps attached to the tank room (if the water level) Chamber of assembling water leaking from links with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.35 m and provides a submersible water pump for dewatering these waters.
Recommended paint the tank on the inside with certified proof for the formation of algae, bacteria and fungi inside the tank.
Installation of stairs under the safety covers ground water reservoirs.

Vertical sector in the ground water tank made of reinforced concrete
Rebar detailing

Periodic maintenance requirements:
Repair ground reservoirs in case of any damage to them and address leaks if any leaks appeared empty the tank of water, dried, and make the necessary treatment to prevent water leakage.
Care Balawamat and valves and fittings, cleaned and remove blockages from the salts, sediments and changed if damaged.
Care tanks and sealed so difficult open Oalabt.
Inspection and testing of pumps (parts of the transmission and motor control devices and electrical connections).
In the case of whether the ground works a reservoir tank for fire water, it must provide a permanent source of water fire during the maintenance process.
Oblige companies and institutions based maintenance work to secure the safety equipment for its members.
Overhead water tanks
Reservoir site requirements:
Taken into account in choosing a place reservoir to be created in a safe position to take into account when designing columns installation or floors to be designed to withstand the loads that will be exposed her and does not entail the implementation of any damages to the safety of the building from the construction and taken into account in the design of the building, taking into account the loads additional arise of the building is equipped with water tank in the cases of filling and discharge.
Take into account that the level of the bottom of the tanks at an altitude of at least 3 m on the roof top of the first beneficiary or at least 5 m on the highest level of health facilities and that this bottom rises from his roof rack 60 cm for easy installation and maintenance.
The upper reservoir types in terms of material used:
Steel tanks (steel tanks):
And which shall be welds aspects and angles soft and buried Article core and all the bottoms links tablet at the same level within the board, and the inner surfaces were exposed to the foot of the sandstone (SAND BLAST) with Aadakhozanat stainless steel, with the need to paint tanks steel from abroad, two-sided textured weatherproof Steel and non-toxic oily three aspects Balboah, and are available in the reservoir property of non-leaching of its aspects and Hall.
Tanks, glass fiber reinforced plastic
Water tanks made of reinforced concrete:
Observed in the reservoirs created from reinforced concrete be concrete mixing identical to what came foundations of the design and conditions of implementation of reinforced concrete in buildings for the concrete is executing the water with the addition of a suitable material increase property concrete for non-water permeability and the proportions correct and take into account the use of vibrators, mechanical, and must be the inner surface smooth the tank, this is done by using the appropriate whiteness, preferably aspects cladding and internally Hall faience tiles are beveled edges, and in all cases there must be a non-leaching property of sides and the bottom of the tank.
Insulation requirements:
Insulation against water leakage:
Shall take precautions previous to prevent water leakage.
Insulation against heat and atmospheric changes:
Shall enclose the reservoirs walls coverslip to protect it from atmospheric changes and leave space between the cabinets and walls of not less than 60 cm from each side, and in the case cover top of the tank should not be less than the distance between the top of the tank and the bottom of the ceiling of 80 cm with the need for the availability of slots proper ventilation around the reservoir, and in the If you do not enclose the reservoir Walls curtain should be available in its aspects and ceiling factors insulation adequate to prevent exposure of its contents to changes thermal disparate as stated booklet thermal insulation in buildings issued by the Deputy Ministry for Technical Affairs, also take into account the isolation of the piping on the exposed surfaces generally changes heat so as to prevent a large thermal changes in the contents, and this is done using the appropriate insulation materials and shoddy.
The expense of upper water tank capacity:
Determine the capacity of the reservoir on the basis of one-third of the daily consumption of units to be fed him taking into account the needs of each building fire.
There are three ways to calculate the approximate upper water tank capacity illustrated as follows: -
Basic rule:
And depend on the calculation capacity of the reservoir on the basis of 30 times the disposal of the pump per minute, this theory allows storage capacity for a period of 30 minutes and in the case of power failure or sudden water cuts to the public network and this is true only in the case that electricity or water cut off and the water level at the top level of the reservoir, and in this case would run the pumps no more than twice per hour.
Virtual method:
And depends on the sole discretion of the amount of water needed in a time of emergency and the duration of the emergency period expected, which is equivalent of 30% to 40% of the total daily consumption in addition to the inventory appropriate to extinguish the fire, in addition to taking into account the economic aspects, such as the cost of establishing the reservoir and the reflection effect of weight on Origin concrete.
Pump cycle:
Determine the capacity of the tank so that it does not increase the number of times the pump at about 6 times and this means to operate the pump for five minutes and stand for five minutes, and the smaller the number of times the pump at less the rate of consumption of the engine as well as perform maintenance operations.
Connections and accessories
Each tank provides the feed pipe mounted on a low level of the roof space of not less than 25 cm.
Provides each tank float diameter appropriately equipped with a valve on the pipe filling inflows to the reservoir to prevent high water level in the reservoir for the limit as a result of the possibility of high pressure water network degree above the level of filling due to the tank, and shall give a slot LED Tbarva equivalent to the disposal pipe filling that must to install the valve lock out the tank (valve can be dispensed with this buoy in the case of buildings higher than 30 meters), also take into account to provide each tank to feed the pipe diameter suitable building height of no less where it is given from the bottom of the tank about 10 cm.
Equipped with tanks pipe surplus in diameter by 1 inch, at least for Qatar pipe filling in the nutritional status of the city network directly with the observation that when feeding reservoirs pumps water must be pipe surplus diameter suitable allows the discharge of water coming from the pumps, which under pressure as it is in this case will be water coming from the pipe filling under pressure while the pipe surplus operate under gravity and ride this pipe at the level above the level of the water surface design inside the tank distance 10 cm, and must relate to pipe surplus either tank ground to pour it or call indirectly point discharge suitable ground floor and in a visible place, including with him can observe this increase in order to avoid wasting water, and in all cases, you should not overflow pipes connection to the drainage pipes in any way, and prefers to devote a separate pipe to drain the surplus extends to the bottom of the building.

Details of the upper reservoir connections
Tanks must be equipped with pipe diameter suitable laundering at least (1) inch by capacity of the reservoirs.
The reservoir, which provides more than 120 cm high external staircase to reach the surface and in the case of stairs inside the tank must be of a non-material steel, Gersama, wooden ramps can be used to moving to descend to the bottom of the tank from the inside.
If you use more than the upper tank These tanks are connected to some through drag pipes or through poise pipes.
Requirements for the design, implementation and maintenance:
Keep paint the walls and floors of reservoirs on the inside with weatherproof be algae, fungi and bacteria, so after washing tank of chlorine, as well as after each cleaning process.
Must be available in an insulating material reservoirs of water to prevent water infiltration from the reservoir and be Reservoir slot court so as not to allow the entry of dust and insects, rodents and weatherproof entry into force of the sun's rays.
Provides each tank pipe Laundry diameter ranging between inch and 4 inches depending on the size of the tank and put the level of the tank bottom (floor) and reach a pipe surplus with the need to work stopcock it opens time washing only, and take into account when creating these reservoirs to be a bottom tilted towards the slot washing mentioned Askew 0.5 cm per meter at least.
Each tank provides one or more pipe for ventilation related to the outside air penetrating the roof of the tank and ending inverted Pkua to balance the air pressure inside the tank preventing the Pressure and vacuum during filling and Altgreg and riding on the network mentioned elbow wire to prevent the entry of insects and exotic materials.
Working roof tank slot or more dimensions suitable not less than 70 × 80 cm, to go down inside to clean and maintain, and have this slot tight lid, as there must be a vacuum bottom of the tank at least a height of about 60 cm for easy installation of pipe washing and maintenance of the tank and pipes and devices attached to it.
Separate water tanks

Separate reservoirs is an upper cabinets arise sites that contain a range of housing low-rises (the role or roles) and is intended to ensure the needs of water has an economic and efficient manner.
Reservoir site requirements:
Taken into account in the selection of the reservoir site to be extensions of the reservoir and from it far from sources of pollution.
Must choose the site at the top of the tank at the site, taking into account the above.
Must when choosing a place reservoir into account the circumstances of urban sprawl Active.
Must choose the location and height of the tank to give a high water pressure of about (0.5 bar) to the top of the on-site facility.
Reservoir construction materials:
Prefers the use of reinforced concrete in such a case of the cheap cost and ability to make sizes in large tanks.
Insulation requirements:
That is isolated water pipes to and from the external tank against the sun, as well as isolate the walls of the tank.
Openings should be covered upper reservoirs to prevent the sun's rays and dust from entering the tank and prevent the growth of algae.
Water tank capacity account separate:
The tank capacity is calculated separate water in the same way as the upper water tank in clause
Are work landline tank add to the upper reservoir so that there is a fit between volumetric reservoirs to reduce the size of the upper reservoir, according to previous requirements.

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